Stains on the skin are more common in women of childbearing age especially if, according to specialists in Dermatology , can also occur in men. Most often they do in patients of Asian and Hispanic.
Causes of melasma:
It is known that there are multiple factors that can facilitate its emergence as pregnancy, hormonal contraceptives, estrogen treatments, some antiepileptic drugs, genetic factors, ovarian pathology, some cosmetics and exposure to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The skin spots usually appear on the cheeks, nose, forehead, chin and upper lip. Its distribution is usually bilateral and symmetrical.
Melasma treatment is individualized for each patient and each skin is different. A general guideline is to remove if those factors might be favoring the appearance of stains, such as certain drugs or cosmetics, and exposure to sunlight can.
All treatments must be accompanied by a high sun protection to be applied at least twice a day throughout the year correctly or the result will not be the same.
- Topical treatments are most widely used depigmenting effect hydroquinone, retinoic acid, azelaic acid, kojic acid, arbutin, α-lipoic acid, glycolic and salicylic acid, vitamin C and recently tranexamic acid.
- Mesotherapy can be performed with the same active ingredients used in the topical treatment but with faster action.
- Chemical peels -may be done in consultation and be superficial or deep (the latter not generally recommended in this condition for possible complications and side effects). The most used are glycolic acid, salicylic acid, Jessner, trichloroacetic, azelaic acid and retinol.
- Lasers. Fractional they have advantages over previous.
Generally these last two options are reserved for very specific and resistant to other treatments performed by the high rate of recurrence and complications, in addition to the higher cost cases.
Usually treatment is difficult, long, and the best results are obtained by combining various types. You have to be very consistent to get, but a complete cure, at least an improvement.