Cervical cancer, commonly known as cervical cancer affects 100,000 women 7 in developed countries. In developing countries, the figure is higher. Its main cause is infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) which is sexually transmitted.
The cervical cancer develops very slowly. At first, the tissues of the cervix undergo several changes at the cellular level, called dysplasia or precancers. These lesions are prone to spread deep into the cervical tissue and develop into cancer. Once reaching the limits of the cervix, they can invade surrounding tissues and the vagina, rectum, bladder and eventually cause tumors in other body parts.
Symptoms of uterine neck cancer
This cancer may not cause symptoms, especially in its early stages. When symptoms do appear, they are:
- Pain or bleeding during sexual intercourse or during a scan
- pelvic pain
- vaginal bleeding
- outside the menstrual period bleeding or loss
Risk factors for cervical cancer
The main risk factor for this cancer is infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). In fact, this virus is the cause of more than 90% of cervical cancers. Other risk factors are:
- Early age at first intercourse
- Number of sexual partners
- Use of oral contraceptives
- HIV infection
The cervical Pap smear, a test conducted by specialists in Gynaecology and Obstetrics , can detect infection Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and precancerous lesions, years before cervical cancer develops.
Treatment of uterine neck cancer
The treatments for cervical cancer are surgery and a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Using a technique or another depends on the stage of the disease, ie, tumor size, depth of invasion, and whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Also taken into account the age of the patient and her desire for motherhood.
Three types of cervical cancer and in each case must be made a specific type of treatment.
- Carcinoma in situ: In most cases it is possible to preserve the uterus. The treatment options are: conization, internal radiation therapy (brachytherapy) and total hysterectomy.
- Cervical cancer early: The main treatment is radical hysterectomy with excision of tissue adjacent to the uterus and the pelvic lymph nodes. If there are risk factors such as positive nodes should be applied chemotherapy associated with radiotherapy.
- Advanced cervical cancer: If cervical cancer has spread beyond the uterus, surgery is not the right treatment. These cases have to be treated with a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.