Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer and although the number of cases in Spain and other Western countries is increasing, progress in the area of research are increasingly encouraging, both in diagnosis, and a better understanding of the causes of this tumor. In addition, melanoma is a cancer that can be prevented by sun exposure habits are modified since childhood.
Skin cancer types, diagnosis and treatment
The main skin cancers are, in order of frequency, the basal cell and squamous skin denominadoscarcinomas, and melanoma. Of all malignant tumors of the skin, causing greater malignancy is melanoma. There are other less incidence cancers such as lymphoma or skin dermatofibrosarcoma.
Melanoma is the most aggressive, because it can spread to other organs distance easily and melanoma is also very resistant to conventional treatments.
The ABCDE rule has been used to describe when an injury may require a consultation with a specialist in dermatology to rule out melanoma. These initials stand for the initials of asymmetry, irregular borders, multiple colors exceeding 5 mm and Evolution, which represent changes in color or size diameter.
The main environmental cause of melanoma is ultraviolet radiation. In addition, there are genetic factors that increase the risk of melanoma. Factors that increase risk include, among others, it is to have large numbers of moles, light or red hair and fair skin.
Skin cancer prognosis
This type of cancer is increasing both in Spain and in Europe the incidence of melanoma is increasing significantly. However, when the diagnosis is early , the prognosis is very favorable with a simple treatment based on surgical excision. When the diagnosis is delayed or when the tumor has spread, the likelihood of cure is reduced.
In Spain the cases of melanoma are more serious than desirable. Tumor thickness is usually higher than in other developed countries in Europe. Therefore, we must make an effort to improve and reduce these data.
Recurrence of skin cancer
After the surgery, according to treatment guidelines, local recurrence is rare. However, the tumor may come back in the form of metastases in the lymph nodes or other organs located remotely. The risk of this happening is directly linked at diagnosis and thus early detection is essential.
In cases with initial states a simple excision under local anesthesia is sufficient. When there is more advanced melanoma may be needed more complex surgery. In the case of metastases there are treatments to apply radiotherapy with drugs and methods of immunotherapy, or chemotherapy therapies target.
Skin cancer surgery
All melanoma require surgery s. This may also include the skin or lymph nodes. In some cases, metastasis is involved. The further consequences of the scars are a function of the type of intervention, but increasingly surgical techniques get better results with reduced risk and the consequences for the patient.
Skin cancer risk factors
Excessive sun exposure on the skin contributes to the appearance of many disorders, from aging, to the manifestation of different tumors, and between these skin cancers.
Poor diet causes many health problems, besides affecting the skin. When there is vitamin deficiency diseases may become serious arise. Smoking causes significant aging skin.
Moreover, we cherish our skin throughout the year. In winter the sun can also cause accumulated especially in outdoor occupations such as farm workers, fishermen, gardeners or construction workers exhibitions. In these cases, adequate protection should be done all year alike. In winter, the practice of some sports such as skiing also requires adequate protection.
During the summer, t he basic tips are to avoid burns, reduce exposures at noon, between 12 and 16 hours, wear appropriate clothing and sunscreen. The latter must be applied properly.
Skin cancer research
Many developments are very encouraging, diagnosis, knowledge of the causes and the tumor itself. Increasingly, it is possible to locate these tumors at earlier stages with non-invasive methods of microscopy imaging techniques.
On the other hand, some of the most spectacular innovations refer to new treatments that improve outcomes achieved response and longer survival even in advanced cases.