Which pollens are the ones that produce the most allergy in Madrid?
In the atmosphere of Madrid we are able to collect 46 different types of pollens. Of all of them, the three most important are the pollens of cupresáceas, the cypresses, the arizónicas, that appear in the month of January, February and March. We see them here in blue. Then follows in the month of March, April, the banana pollen, the banana shadow that is the most common ornamental tree we have in Madrid. And finally, in the months of May and June we have pollen from the grasses.
In this graph we can see how the symptoms of the patients, in this red line, how these symptoms make a triple curve, a first curve of rhinitis symptoms, which correlates well with the cupresceous counts. A second curve, a little less important but also very significant, which correlates very well with the banana pollen counts. And a third curve, which is the most intense, that appears in the month of May and June, which correlates perfectly with the grass pollen. The symptoms of asthma, which we see in blue, we also see how does this triple curve that correlates very well with these three pollen types. Therefore, we can say without a doubt that in Madrid, especially in the months from January to July, these three pollens are the ones that produce symptoms of epidemic pollinosis in a large part of the people of Madrid.
How can we treat this disease in a definitive way?
The only curative treatment for this disease are vaccines, allergy shots. In addition we must bear in mind that pollen rhinitis in almost half of cases with asthma, which is an added problem. Nowadays allergen vaccines are very well standardized and allow us, although not cure this disease in 100%, yes at least cure the disease in 80% or 90%.
Allergenic vaccines are given by injections in the arm, an injection that is put every month and with a period that can go from three to five years. To the patients to whom a vaccine is administered, they are all given an application for the mobile so that they go daily pointing out the symptoms of pollinosis that they experience every day. It is an application that we have done for the clinic. Thanks to this type of applications we can make sure that the pollen that we have chosen to introduce in the vaccine really is the pollen that is producing the symptoms.
How do symptoms evolve during vaccination?
Here we can see the pollen counts of grasses during these four years and the symptoms that these grasses produced to the patient. We see how the concentrations of grass pollen during these three years has been very similar and in the last one it was much higher. But on the contrary, we see how the symptoms of rhinitis of this patient in the month of May as, after only one year of vaccination, from one year to another have already dropped by almost 30% and the following year they fell almost to one year. 70%. It is clear that in this patient vaccination has managed to reduce the symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis by 70%.
What we are seeing here is the symptoms of asthma, this is in May when we started the vaccination, it is these symptoms, we see how if we compare it with the month of May of the following year practically the symptoms had been reduced by 80%. But it is that in the following years, if we look at May, practically the symptoms of asthma are already non-existent. That is to say, we have achieved that this patient practically stopped having symptoms of asthma during the month of May, in relation to the grasses thanks to a vaccination of only four years. We are therefore talking about a treatment that is capable, or has been able in this patient, to reduce the symptoms of rhinitis by more than 70%, thanks to vaccination, and the symptoms of asthma practically cure them almost 100%.