The aorta is the most important artery of the organism and from which branches emerge that will irrigate all the organs and tissues of the human body.
What is an aortic aneurysm
The aortic aneurysm consists of dilating the diameter of this important artery, with the consequent risk of serious complications (rupture, compression of other structures, thromboembolisms, etc.).. With the recent development and improvement of cardiovascular imaging techniques, the diagnosis of aortic aneurysm has increased greatly and this has allowed us to better study its prevalence, its causes, evolution and complications.
This dilatation of the aorta is caused by some kind of weakness in the structure of the wall of this artery. A cause of the aortic aneurysm would be acquired processes such as arteriosclerosis, some infections and some immunological diseases (with the presence of antibodies that attack the tissues themselves: rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, lupus erythematosus). Other causes of the aortic aneurysm would be of genetic origin, due to the alteration in the structure of the proteins that form the aorta and that make it weak or too elastic, in such a way that it dilates or breaks (forms associated with the bicuspid aortic valve , Marfan syndrome, Ehrler-Danlos, etc ...).
Given the danger of rupture, when it exceeds a certain diameter, surgical intervention is recommended to correct the problem, either by replacing the dilated segment with an artificial aortic graft (open surgery), or by inserting an aortic graft into the lumen of the aorta. the artery to isolate the dilated segment (endoprosthesis through a catheter).
When is it necessary to operate an aortic aneurysm
The indication of the intervention is determined, depending on the segment affected, by the diameter of the aneurysm (especially in relation to the size of the patient), when a rapid increase is seen in a short time or when it causes complications due to compression of surrounding structures.. In the case of bicuspid aortic valves (1-2% of the population) or in genetic syndromes (Marfan, Ehrler-Danlos) and when there is a family history of aortic complications, surgery with smaller diameters is indicated.
A separate case is when a serious complication of rupture has already occurred; is called acute aortic syndrome and requires emergent surgery.
In all cases, the control of arterial hypertension is very important, when it is present.