Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common disorders of today, and " approximately 60% of dementias are due to their cause, " says Dr. Pablo Casariego , a neurological expert at the Neurological Sciences Unit. from Madrid. The prevalence of the disease varies with age, being "2% between 65-69 years and close to 60% in those over 90 years ."
"10% of the causes of Alzheimer's are hereditary, 30% have family history with AD and the remaining 60% are considered sporadic cases". Although the exact causes are unknown, its effect on neurons is clear because, as Dr. Casariego explains, "non-soluble deposits of beta-amyloid proteins and Tau protein that kill neurons are produced". In addition, there are other risk factors such as "age, family history, female sex, history of severe TBI, dyslipidemia, physical and intellectual inactivity, smoking, poor diet in vegetables and fruits, among others."
For the doctor, the current pharmacological treatment of AD " is not very rewarding ". There are two types of drugs that improve their symptoms "discretely and for a very limited time": acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine. The non-pharmacological treatment , fundamental for Dr. Casariego, is carried out with cognitive rehabilitation, adequate physical exercise, correct nutrition and adaptation of his environment. "We must not forget the treatment of complications (antidepressants, antipsychotics, etc.) when necessary," adds the expert.
A multitude of drugs are being developed with new targets to try to avoid the deposition of beta-amyloid or Tau, improving the mitochondrial metabolism, vaccines to produce immunization against Beta-amyloid, acting on the nicotinic receptors, growth factors, γ- Inhibitor. secretase, etc.
It is expected that in a few years the treatment for this "devastating disease has changed in a very important way". "In our center -concludes the doctor- we are investigating the molecule CL2-30893-012 that acts through frontal histamine receptors improving episodic memory ".