A retinal detachment occurs when the neurosensory retina separates from the pigment epithelium, the last layer of the retina with which it is attached and nourishing it to function properly.
A myopic eye, especially in those with myopia greater than 6-8 diopters, may present degenerations in the peripheral retina that may increase the risk of retinal detachment. This fact is accentuated if the myopic presents in the macular area other diseases, such as macular hole, myopic traction maculopathy or neovascularization.
Also predisposing to retinal detachment are the myopes that present in the rest of the retina and peripheral areas of vitreous detachment.
Another complication is the neovascular membrane, which occurs when it grows beneath the retina in the macula (which are those formed by the new anomalous growth of blood vessels) or epiretinal membranes, whose growth is above the retina.
In case of myopia ...
Thus, in the case of myopia, periodic reviews are always recommended. Likewise, if the patient presents any symptoms associated with the following types should go as soon as possible to his ophthalmologist :
- If in your peripheral vision you perceive flashes of light or flashes (photopsies), because we can be in front of a detachment of vitreous with traction. Should this occur, the treatment would consist in keeping a certain rest and be attentive to any increase of the occasions in which the flashes of light appear.
- If he detects more flying flies (miodesopsias) than he could have habitually or suddenly appear many flying flies; it can also be a vitreous detachment and the treatment is again a relative rest and be alert if the symptomatology increases.
- If in the field of vision there is a kind of "curtain" that weakens as if it were made by the wind and makes us difficult and worse vision; in this case it may also be a retinal detachment. If this happens, an emergency department of ophthalmology should be contacted as soon as possible.
The treatment will be based on having surgery to be able to get the closing of the holes through which the liquid passes; if the rupture of the retina is occurring before detachment can be treated with laser. Depending on the case, there are occasions when it is approached from outside the eye (placing a silicone band) and, in others, inside (with a vitrectomy to be able to manipulate the inner tissues from the inside).
- If there is loss of vision or distortion of the images and / or lines, it will be related to the lesions that affect the macular area, such as macular holes, epiretinal membranes, neovascularization or myopic traction maculopathies. In all these cases, the treatment will be performed by the surgical technique of vitrectomy or injection of antiangiogenic in the neovascular membrane. All this occurs as a consequence of the fact that the eye of the high myopic is longer than normal and its walls, among which is the retina, are more thinned, therefore they are more fragile.