Acne is a skin condition that, despite not pose a serious threat to health negatively affects the quality of life of patients, as comedones, pustules and secondary scars this pathology can affect your appearance.
The acne is a very common pathology of the hair follicle, which occurs mostly in adolescence, with extension in the early decades of adulthood. It is manifested by the appearance of comedones (“pimples&rdquo ;) open and closed, inflammatory lesions such as papules and pustules (“Grains” with and without“head&rdquo ;), deeper lesions such as nodules and the eventual appearance of minor scars.
There are different degrees acne, from the exclusive appearance of comedones, no inflammatory lesions, even the presence of even ulcerated nodular lesions on the face and trunk, with fever ( fulminant acne ) through moderate-severe inflammatory forms with association of papules, pustules, nodules and scarring of varying intensity and extension.
The acne is not caused by a single cause, is a multifactorial process involving the obstruction of the outlet of the hair follicles or excess production of sebum and the presence of a bacteria called Propionibacterium acnes. The mixture of all these factors results in rupture of the wall of the hair follicles and the appearance of inflammation in acne.
Sometimes the use of some oral drugs may favor the appearance of acne, as in the case of steroids.
There is no way to prevent acne. Local hygiene, with some soaps may reduce the intensity of the lesions. No evidence of the involvement of diet on acne and it is not clear that foods such as high-fat, chocolates worsen the picture.
Still, there are patients who have the intake of certain foods may cause exacerbation of lesions, in which case if it would be desirable to avoid. This should not lead to the generalization of restrictive diets in all patients with acne.
The treatment depends on the severity of the injury and its extension. The hygiene soaps containing substances eliminating occlusion follicle can be beneficial, such as benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid or salicylic acid.
Usually used topical antibiotics, as clindamycin or erythromycin, often associated with products as mentioned above. The use of topical antibiotics in isolation is not recommended to prevent the emergence of resistance.
Oral ntibioticos, such as tetracyclines, however, may be useful but in periods of 2-3 months and in the case of mild to moderate acnes, but after the suspension is frequent reappearance of injuries.
Also, in women, the association of a oral contraceptive and antiandrogen can keep acne idle for long periods.
The drug which is more effective is isotretinoin. In treatments of 6-8 months in duration, is able to eliminate injuries, even after prolonged periods of suspension. In many cases, isotretinoin gets even total healing process.
Finally, techniques such as photodynamic therapy or laser can provide temporary relief, but are not widespread. The photodynamic therapy consists of applying a cream and activate their substances with a special lamp. The laser, however, is responsible for burning the sebaceous glands that cause oily skin or a thin layer of skin to reduce acne scars.