What signs can tell us the onset of Parkinson's disease?
Parkinson's disease is characterized by so -called motore s symptoms including tremor at rest (especially starts on one side), slowness of movement (hypokinesia), rigidity and gait disturbance and stability. However, include a number of symptoms that appear even before they have been called non - motor symptoms, where we can find sleep disturbances, a characteristic symptom is the disorder of REM sleep behavior; decreased sense of smell, constipation or depression. The latter two are common in the general population, so that should not be cause for alarm if they occur in isolation.
How did they evolve? Do they appear more as this disease develops?
The patient will start monitoring and treatment by your neurologist , so the motor symptoms improve and will remain stable for the first three to five years, but is a progressive disease that over the years will increase and will force change doses and treatment guidelines. It should be emphasized that evolution is very variable in each patient and, in the same way that there are individuals with a slow progression over 20 years, others however are major limitations in the first 5 years of disease.
What problems or secondary diseases can develop this disease?
Over the years the same medication, which had been very effective in the beginning, stop doing the same effect and even causes side effects such as involuntary movements, called dyskinesias. Is usual to have to increase and fragmenting the treatment more shots to get the same effect and having to resort to a second or third drug to maintain controlled mobility avoiding complications. As the disease progresses, we can also find symptoms of autonomic dysfunction which means poorer control of blood pressure with a tendency to have low levels, the presence of different degrees of cognitive impairment and behavioral disorders prone to impulsiveness.
Is there a cure? What is your treatment? What progress there in this regard?
At this time Parkinson's disease has no cure. Treatment aims to improve symptoms, and have a large arsenal of drugs that day have made the life expectancy of patients is nearly equal to that of other individuals. A pharmacological level, there are several lines of treatment to replenish the deficit of a substance called dopamine, which is the main responsible for the symptoms. They are increasingly comfortable taking drugs and their possible side effects are better known. For years they have developed therapies for the disease in a more advanced state. Surgical intervention consisting of deep brain stimulation via electrodes, has been performed for more than 20 years, and increasingly advances occurring in search of different "targets" treatment. They have also created devices continuous medication infusion (infusion pumps), that with proper selection criteria allow improving some cases with advanced disease. Apart from what has been called symptomatic treatment only improve symptoms of the disease, currently is making a great effort in investigating its causes, which will in future get treatments, which started very early with , can slow the progression. Gene therapy, cell transplantation, immunotherapy and stem cell research are examples of this.
Is there a predisposition to Parkinson 's ?
Genetic predisposition exists, just as in most diseases. Years ago it was said that Parkinson's disease was sporadic, ie, without a hereditary component. In the last 15 years have been discovering different familial forms of the disease have shown us a very different reality. Today we can say that 10-15% of cases are genetic, but it is likely that in the coming years this percentage increase. Anyway, genetics alone is possible that it can not justify the origin of the disease and have to think about a union of predisposing factors, where the atmosphere also play an important role as lifestyle, consumption or exposure to certain toxic.
Can it be prevented? Is it hereditary?
You can not prevent because it is not yet possible to determine the causes of it. In inherited forms that have detected a causal mutation, it is developing an important research to design molecules that can compensate the deficit posed by this genetic alteration. It is very promising, but still in very preliminary phase.