Diabetes mellitus, also called simply diabetes, is a disorder in which the body does not handle glucose, ie sugar properly.
Insulin is the hormone that helps sugar enter the body 's cells so they can work normally. Diabetes occurs when not enough insulin or the cells do not respond properly to insulin. This increases levels of blood sugar.
What are the symptoms of diabetes?
Diabetes does not usually have symptoms. If this is the case, the most common are:
- Very thirsty
- Need to urinate frequently
- Blurry vision
What complications can have diabetes?
Although, as mentioned above, this disease has no symptoms, it can cause serious health problems if not properly treated, among which are:
- Renal disease
- Vision problems (including blindness)
- heart attacks
- Pain or loss of sensation in hands and feet
- Need to amputate toes or hands
How is diabetes diagnosed?
Only it needs to be performed a blood test, since thus, can measure the concentration of glucose or blood sugar.
What are the causes of diabetes?
The main risk factors for diabetes mellitus are:
- Age over 45 years
- family history of diabetes mellitus
- Arterial hypertension
- He has had a baby over 4.1 kg or diabetes in pregnancy
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- Elevated blood fats (dyslipidaemia)
That is why in the consultations of Internal Medicine recommends that overweight people or any of the other risk factors undergo an analytical to rule out diabetes. For people with no risk factors, this test is recommended to perform it after 45 years.
Can diabetes be prevented?
Yes, you can reduce the chances of developing diabetes. It is best to lead a healthy diet and exercise to control weight. This can help prevent the onset of both diabetes and complications of it if one already has, as it helps to better control sugar levels.
What is the treatment of diabetes?
There are many medications that help control the level of glucose in the blood. They can be pills, which help the body to produce more insulin or insulin have better effect or drugs may also be administered with a small prick (insulin analogues or new group of drugs called GLP-1).
In many cases you also have to take other medicines to control diabetes complications, such as cholesterol or blood pressure, to reduce the risk of stroke or heart attack.
On the other hand, it is important that drugs are complemented with a Mediterranean diet (lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and limiting meat and fried foods or rich in saturated fats). It is also important to do regular exercise and not smoking.