Infectious mononucleosis is a benign, self - limiting viral lymphoproliferative disease (originating in lymphoid cells) produced by the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). It is characterized by periods of intense activated in immune suppression and transmitted through saliva, why is also called the "kissing disease", and can also be spread by blood, transplants and sex.
Symptoms of mononucleosis
During acute infection, the main symptoms of this virus are:
- Sore throat
- Headache (headache)
- Arthralgia (joint pain)
- Shaking chills
- Petechiae (small red lesions) on the palate
- Swelling of the face
- Asthenia (fatigue or general weakness)
After acute infection, the virus remains in the throat for 18 months, although symptoms usually go away in two or three weeks.
Complications of mononucleosis
Since the virus mainly affects the lymph nodes, liver, spleen and other organs, complications can include:
- Neurologic: meningitis, encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome, seizures.
- Respiratory: pleurisy (inflammation of the covering of the lungs) and obstruction of the upper airway.
- Hematologic: thrombocytopenia (decreased platelets in the bloodstream), agranuloctosis (decreased number of neutrophils) and hemolytic and aplastic anemia.
- Spleen: ruptured spleen.
- Heart: pericarditis (inflammation of the lining around the heart) and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle).
- Hepatic: hepatic necrosis and hepatitis.
- Dermatologic: vasculitis, acrocianosis and rash by Aminopenicillins.
Treatment of mononucleosis
As previously reported, the disease autorresuelve in two or three weeks, but to alleviate the symptoms, in consultations of dentistry and other specialties analgesics are used. For an evolution of the virus more bearable and prevent complications, some measures are recommended:
- Good hygiene by rinsing with saline solutions
- Diet high in protein and low fat
- To take a break
- Consuming vitamin supplements
- Encourage patients
- Prevent secondary infections
- Check the sore throat with a local anesthetic and chlorhexidine
- Avoid violent activities and contact sports